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Glossary of terms related to cybercrimes

These are some key terms in the world of cybercrimes and cybersecurity:

1. Cybercrime: Criminal activities carried out using computers or the internet.

2. Hacker: A person who gains unauthorized access to computer systems or networks.

3. Malware: Malicious software designed to damage, disrupt, or gain unauthorized access to computer systems (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojans).

4. Phishing: A deceptive technique where cybercriminals pose as legitimate entities to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information.

5. Ransomware: Malware that encrypts a victim's data and demands a ransom for its release.

6. Cybersecurity: Measures and practices to protect computer systems, networks, and data from cyber threats.

7. Data Breach: Unauthorized access, acquisition, or release of sensitive data, often resulting in data theft.

8. Social Engineering: Manipulating people into revealing confidential information, often through psychological manipulation.

9. DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service): Overloading a server or network with traffic to make it unavailable to users.

10. Dark Web: A hidden part of the internet where illegal activities often occur, including the sale of stolen data.

11. Zero-Day Vulnerability: A security flaw in software that is unknown to the developer and, therefore, lacks a fix.

12. Cyber Extortion: Demanding payment or threatening to expose sensitive information or launch an attack. Sexual extortion, often referred to as "sextortion," is a form of Cyber Extortion for example.

13. Identity Theft: Stealing and using someone else's personal information for fraudulent purposes.

14. Cyber Espionage: Illegally gathering sensitive information from individuals, businesses, or governments for political, economic, or competitive advantage.

15. Cryptojacking: Illegally using someone else's computer to mine cryptocurrencies without their knowledge or consent.

16. White Hat Hacker: Ethical hackers who work to improve cybersecurity by finding and fixing vulnerabilities.

17. Black Hat Hacker: Cybercriminals who engage in illegal activities for personal gain or mischief.

18. Botnet: A network of compromised computers controlled by a cybercriminal for various malicious purposes.

19. Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): An extra layer of security requiring users to provide two different authentication factors to access an account.

20. Firewall: A network security device or software that filters incoming and outgoing traffic to protect against unauthorized access and cyber threats.

Understanding these terms can help individuals and organizations protect themselves against cyber threats and stay informed about the evolving landscape of digital crime.

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